Skip directly to Accessibility Notice

Smart Contracts Outperform Broad Digital Assets Amidst Overall Crypto Weakness

September 27, 2021

Read Time 5 MIN


Bitcoin underperformed risk assets so far in September, down 7.3% through September 23 vs. the S&P 500 Index down 1.55%.1 The broader digital assets universe, as represented by the MVIS CryptoCompare Digital Assets 100 Index (MVDA), returned -5.2% over the same period.2 Though the impact was mild in market-cap weighted terms, strong price action among some smart contract protocol tokens helped mitigate the impact of continued regulatory headwinds for crypto in China, which tends to hurt Bitcoin disproportionately due to China’s history hosting large miners. Looming Federal Reserve policy normalization and additional regulatory uncertainty in Washington, D.C. also weighed on the asset class, whose returns correlate more closely with other risk assets during broad market selloffs.3 The Crypto Fear & Greed Index, which incorporates volatility, social media sentiment and other factors, hit a low of 21 (scale of 0-100) on September 22. For perspective, that index typically bottoms around 10 in oversold bear markets (March 2020, May/June 2021, much of 2018).4

Fig. 1: Digital Assets Still Exhibit High Correlation with S&P 500 During Market Selloffs

MVDA25 vs S&P: rolling 1 month correlation

Digital Assets Still Exhibit High Correlation With S&P 500 During Market Selloffs

Source: Bloomberg, rolling 30 day correlation as of 9/23/21. MVDA25 = MVIS CryptoCompare Digital Assets 25 index.

While it is possible that September’s poor returns have something to do with market participants re-starting in-person activities5 and leaving their trading screens unattended—New York City hosted three major digital assets conferences in September, including Messari Mainnet, which claimed 2,000+ attendees at the Marriott Marquis in Times Square—the more likely culprit is the regulatory environment. At the Messari conference, for example, one DeFi (decentralized finance) entrepreneur was reportedly served a subpoena by the SEC before his keynote panel. In response, Messari’s founder Ryan Selkis teased a Senate run against crypto skeptic Senator Elizabeth Warren (D-MA).6 In more mainstream shows-of-force, SEC Chairman Gary Gensler testified before the Senate Banking Committee mid-month and hosted a livestream on cryptocurrencies with the Washington Post on September 22. At both events Chairman Gensler reiterated that “many” cryptocurrencies are in fact securities and will face increased enforcement action from the securities regulator if the U.S. Congress cannot pass legislation clarifying the debate. Meanwhile, the crypto provisions in both the infrastructure and budget reconciliations remain troublesome to many bulls. Specifically, these provisions include changes to wash sale rules7, the definition of a “broker”, and additional tax reporting requirements—any of which could dampen the “velocity” of digital money, a defining feature of the asset class which underpins the revenue numbers and token performance of many decentralized protocols such as Uniswap (UNI, mkt cap $13B as of 9/23/2021).8

One specific legislative fix under debate in the U.S. infrastructure bill is a proposal to amend Section 6050I of the tax code so that “any person” who receives over $10,000 in digital assets must verify the sender’s personal information, including social security number, and sign and submit a report to the government within 15 days. Failure to comply would result in mandatory fines and could be a felony (up to 5 years in prison), according to the Proof of Stake Alliance who wrote a recent report on the topic.9 The proposal relies on a 1984 rule written to discourage in-person cash transfers and to encourage the use of financial institutions for large transactions. But the law may be difficult to apply to the transfer of digital assets, which are defined broadly as “any digital representation of value” using distributed ledger technology, including NFTs (non-fungible tokens). Miners, stakers, lenders, decentralized applications and marketplace users, traders, businesses and individuals are all at risk of being subject to this reporting requirement, even though in most situations the person or entity in receipt is not in a position to report the required information.10 The potential impact of this tax treatment on the market for NFTs can be seen in the price of $PUNK-BASIC, an ERC-20 token backed 1:1 with CryptoPunks in order to track the floor price of these “OG” NFT collectibles. $PUNK-BASIC price is now down 70% from its August high.11 (See a recent VanEck report on NFTs and the “Jpeg economy” here.)

Fig. 2: NFT Prices Have Cratered Since the Market Peak in August

$PUNK-BASIC token price

NFT Prices Have Cratered Since the Market Peak in August

Source: Coingecko, as of 9/15/2021.

Still, amidst the negative newsflow and overall market weakness, it is important to note that 4 of the top 5 best-performing digital assets (above $1B market cap) since the market peak in August have been “smart contract protocols”,12 which we define as “open-source blockchain protocols designed to host a variety of self-developed and third party apps,” and which includes Ethereum. While the Ether price is down 30% from its peak, competing smart contract platforms such as Avalanche, Cosmos, Solana and Algorand all released a number of DeFi applications in September, which have attracted a combined $15B in additional deposits. In contrast, the value of ETH deposited in DeFi protocols fell $15B in September. Thus, ETH now accounts for 69% of the value locked in DeFi vs. 79% at the beginning of the month.13 And yet according to Messari, the data provider, the market-cap weighted last 30-day return among 82 smart contract platforms is 12% vs. the MVDA down 5%.14 While the competition between smart contract platforms may be fierce, the cost-advantage of these layer 1 protocols vs. traditional finance and web 2.0 platforms is becoming more evident to market participants. We see diversified exposure to this growing sector as an attractive linchpin of growth-oriented portfolios. Regulatory clarity – involving the potential watering-down of the above crypto-specific legislation in Washington – could be another powerful catalyst.

Fig. 3: Smart Contract Platforms Are Taking Share

Market Share by Category

Smart Contract Platforms Are Taking Share

Past performance is not a reliable indicator of future performance.

Source: Cryptocompare, VanEck, as of 8/23/2021.

Fig. 4: Ethereum Is Losing Share Among Smart Contract Platforms

Smart Contract Platform Market Share

Ethereum Is Losing Share Among Smart Contract Platforms

Past performance is not a reliable indicator of future performance.

Source: VanEck analysis, based on data from CoinMetrics and Messari, as of 8/31/2021. Past performance is not a reliable indicator of future performance. *Algorand, EOS, Solana, TRON, Cardano, Polkadot, Internet Computer, Tezos, NEO, Waves, NEM.


Important Information Regarding Cryptocurrencies.

VanEck assumes no liability for the content of any linked third-party site, and/or content hosted on external sites.

Correlation is a statistic that measures the degree to which two entities move in relation to each other.

MVIS CryptoCompare Digital Assets 100 Index (MVDA) is a market cap-weighted index which tracks the performance of the 100 largest digital assets.

MVIS CryptoCompare Digital Assets 25 Index is a modified market cap-weighted index which tracks the performance of the 25 largest and most liquid digital assets.

S&P 500 Index is a float-adjusted, market-cap-weighted index of 500 leading U.S. companies from across all market sectors.

MSCI All Country World Index captures large- and mid-cap representation across both developed and emerging markets countries and covers approximately 85% of the global investable equity opportunity set.

Crypto Fear & Greed Index measures the current sentiment of the Bitcoin market.

The S&P 500® Index is a product of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and/or its affiliates and has been licensed for use by Van Eck Associates Corporation. Copyright © 2021 S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, a division of S&P Global, Inc., and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Redistribution or reproduction in whole or in part are prohibited without written permission of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC. For more information on any of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC’s indices please visit S&P® is a registered trademark of S&P Global and Dow Jones® is a registered trademark of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC. Neither S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC, their affiliates nor their third party licensors make any representation or warranty, express or implied, as to the ability of any index to accurately represent the asset class or market sector that it purports to represent and neither S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC, their affiliates nor their third party licensors shall have any liability for any errors, omissions, or interruptions of any index or the data included therein.

The information herein represents the opinion of the author(s), an employee of the advisor, but not necessarily those of VanEck. The cryptocurrencies discussed in this material may not be appropriate for all investors. The appropriateness of a particular investment or strategy will depend on an investor’s individual circumstances and objectives.

This material has been prepared for informational purposes only and is not an offer to buy or sell or a solicitation of any offer to buy or sell any cryptocurrencies, or to participate in any trading strategy.

Certain statements contained herein may constitute projections, forecasts and other forward looking statements, which do not reflect actual results, are valid as of the date of this communication and subject to change without notice. Information provided by third party sources are believed to be reliable and have not been independently verified for accuracy or completeness and cannot be guaranteed. VanEck does not guarantee the accuracy of third party data. References to specific securities and their issuers or sectors are for illustrative purposes only.

Cryptocurrency is a digital representation of value that functions as a medium of exchange, a unit of account, or a store of value, but it does not have legal tender status. Cryptocurrencies are sometimes exchanged for U.S. dollars or other currencies around the world, but they are not generally backed or supported by any government or central bank. Their value is completely derived by market forces of supply and demand, and they are more volatile than traditional currencies. The value of cryptocurrency may be derived from the continued willingness of market participants to exchange fiat currency for cryptocurrency, which may result in the potential for permanent and total loss of value of a particular cryptocurrency should the market for that cryptocurrency disappear. Cryptocurrencies are not covered by either FDIC or SIPC insurance. Legislative and regulatory changes or actions at the state, federal, or international level may adversely affect the use, transfer, exchange, and value of cryptocurrency.

Investing in cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, comes with a number of risks, including volatile market price swings or flash crashes, market manipulation, and cybersecurity risks. In addition, cryptocurrency markets and exchanges are not regulated with the same controls or customer protections available in equity, option, futures, or foreign exchange investing. There is no assurance that a person who accepts a cryptocurrency as payment today will continue to do so in the future.

Investors should conduct extensive research into the legitimacy of each individual cryptocurrency, including its platform, before investing. The features, functions, characteristics, operation, use and other properties of the specific cryptocurrency may be complex, technical, or difficult to understand or evaluate. The cryptocurrency may be vulnerable to attacks on the security, integrity or operation, including attacks using computing power sufficient to overwhelm the normal operation of the cryptocurrency’s blockchain or other underlying technology. Some cryptocurrency transactions will be deemed to be made when recorded on a public ledger, which is not necessarily the date or time that a transaction may have been initiated.

  • Investors must have the financial ability, sophistication and willingness to bear the risks of an investment and a potential total loss of their entire investment in cryptocurrency.
  • An investment in cryptocurrency is not suitable or desirable for all investors.
  • Cryptocurrency has limited operating history or performance.
  • Fees and expenses associated with a cryptocurrency investment may be substantial.

There may be risks posed by the lack of regulation for cryptocurrencies and any future regulatory developments could affect the viability and expansion of the use of cryptocurrencies. Investors should conduct extensive research before investing in cryptocurrencies.

1 Bloomberg, as of 9/23/21.

2 Bloomberg, as of 9/23/21.

3 Bloomberg, as of 9/23/21.


5 There is also the issue of seasonality. The MVDA100 has posted a negative return in 7 of the last 8 Septembers before staging a typical year-end rally. Source: MVIS, Bloomberg.



8 Messari, 9/23/2021.




12 Messari, as of 9/23/2021.

13 DefiLlama, VanEck calculations, as of 9/23/2021.

14 Messari and Bloomberg, as of 9/23/2021.

Information provided by Van Eck is not intended to be, nor should it be construed as financial, tax or legal advice. It is not a recommendation to buy or sell an interest in cryptocurrencies.

All investing is subject to risk, including the possible loss of the money you invest. As with any investment strategy, there is no guarantee that investment objectives will be met and investors may lose money. Diversification does not ensure a profit or protect against a loss in a declining market. Past performance is no guarantee of future results.

1 - 3 of 3